RESEARCH SUMMARY WITH CITATIONS

  • Pornography is contributing to the hypersexualization of teens,[i] and even prepubescent children, in our society;[ii]

  • Due to advances in technology and the universal availability of the Internet, young children are frequently exposed to what used to be referred to as hard core, but is now considered mainstream pornography;

  • A study of university students found that 93% of boys and 62% of girls had seen Internet pornography during adolescence;[iii]

  • This early exposure is leading to low self-esteem and body image disorders[iv], an increase in problematic sexual activity at younger ages[v], and greater likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior such as sending sexually explicit images, hookups, multiple sex partners, group sex, and using substances during sex as young adolescents;[vi]

  • Exposure to pornography often serves as childrens' and youths' sex education and shapes their sexual templates;[vii]

  • Because pornography treats women as objects and commodities for the viewer's use[viii], it teaches girls they are to be used and teaches boys to be users;[ix]

  • Pornography normalizes violence and abuse of women and children;[x]

  • Pornography treats women and children as objects[xi] and often depicts rape and abuse as if they are harmless;[xii]

  • Pornography increases the demand for sex trafficking, prostitution, child sexual abuse images, and child pornography;[xiii]

  • Potential detrimental effects on pornography's users can impact brain development and functioning,[xiv] contribute to emotional[xv] and medical illnesses,[xvi] shape deviant sexual arousal,[xvii] and lead to difficulty in forming or maintaining intimate relationships,[xviii] as well as problematic or harmful sexual behaviors[xix] and addiction;[xx]

  • Recent research indicates that pornography is potentially biologically addictive, which means the user requires more novelty, often in the form of more shocking material, in order to be satisfied;[xxi]

  • This biological addiction leads to increasing themes of risky sexual behaviors, extreme degradation, violence, and child sexual abuse images and child pornography;[xxii]

  • Pornography use is linked to lessening desire in young men to marry,[xxiii] dissatisfaction in marriage,[xxiv] and infidelity;[xxv]

  • This link demonstrates that pornography has a detrimental effect on the family unit;

  • The obscenity industry considers the line of legality to be drawn by prosecutors, not by legislators, and pornographers in many parts of the country responded by self-regulating when federal obscenity laws were enforced;[xxvi]

​​

[i] Gail Dines, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children (July 14, 2015); Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 15-24 (2009).

[ii] Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 15-24 (2009); Dennis Howitt & Kerry Sheldon, The Role of Cognitive Distortions in Paedophilic Offending: Internet and Contact Offenders Compared, 13 PSYCHOLOGY, CRIME & LAW, 469–486 (2007).

[iii] Chiara Sabina, Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor, “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth,” CyberPsychology & Behavior 11, no. 6 (2008): 691–693.

[iv] Amy E. Bonomi, Julianna M. Nemeth, Lauren E. Attenburger, Melissa Anderson, Anastasia Snyder & Irma Dotto, Fiction or Not? Fifty Shades is Associated with Health Risks in Adolescent and Young Adult Females, 23 JOURNAL OF WOMEN’S HEALTH 720–728 (2014).

[v] Gail Dines, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children (July 14, 2015); Joris Van Ouystel, Koen Ponnet, & Michael Walrave, The Associations between Adolescents’ Consumption of Pornography and Music videos and Their Sexting Behavior, 17 CYBERPSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND SOCIAL NETWORKING 772–778 (December 9, 2014); Cicely Marston & Ruth Lewis, Anal Heterosex among Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK, 4 SEXUAL HEALTH 1–6 (2014); Eileen M. Alexy, Ann W. Burgess, & Robert A. Prentky, Pornography Use as a Risk Marker for an Aggressive Pattern of Behavior among Sexually Reactive Children and Adolescents, 14 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC NURSES ASSOCIATION 442–456 (2009); Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle & Jane D. Brown, Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, 8 MASS COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY 75–91 (2005).

[vi] Gail Dines, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children (July 14, 2015); Cicely Marston & Ruth Lewis, Anal Heterosex among Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK, 4 SEXUAL HEALTH 1–6 (2014); Joris Van Ouystel, Koen Ponnet, & Michael Walrave, The Associations between Adolescents’ Consumption of Pornography and Music videos and Their Sexting Behavior, 17 CYBERPSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND SOCIAL NETWORKING 772–778 (December 9, 2014); Eric W. Owens, Richard J. Behun, Jill C. Manning & Roy C. Reid, The Impact of Internet Pornography on Adolescents: A Review of the Research,  19 SEXUAL ADDICTION & COMPULSIVITY 1–2 (2012); Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle, & Jane D. Brown, Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, 8 MASS COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY 75–91 (2005).

[vii] Cordelia Anderson, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Why Pornography is a Public Health Issue (July 14, 2015); Eileen M. Alexy, Ann W. Burgess & Robert A. Prentky, Pornography Use as a Risk Marker for an Aggressive Pattern of Behavior among Sexually Reactive Children and Adolescents, 14 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC NURSES ASSOCIATION 442–456 (2009); (2009); Jane Brown & Kelly L. L'Engle, X-Rated: Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media, 36 COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 129–151 (2009); Tori DeAngelis, Web Pornography’s Effect on Children, 38 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 50 (2007); Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle & Jane D. Brown, Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, 8 MASS COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY 75–91 (2005).

[viii] Tori DeAngelis, Web Pornography’s Effect on Children, 38 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 50 (2007); Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg, Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects, 56 SEX ROLES 381–395 (2007).

[ix] Amy E. Bonomi, Julianna M. Nemeth, Lauren E. Attenburger, Melissa L. Anderson, Anastasia Snyder & Irma Dotto, Fiction or Not? Fifty Shades is Associated with Health Risks in Adolescent and Young Adult Females, 23 JOURNAL OF WOMEN’S HEALTH 720–728 (2014); David Horsey, Internet Porn Is an Experiment in Dehumanization, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES (December 15, 2014), http://www.latimes.com/opinion/topoftheticket/la-na-tt-internet-porn-20141215-story.html; Neil Malamuth, Pornography’s Impact on Male Adolescents, 4 ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 563 (2010); Kevin M. Williams, Barry S. Cooper, Teresa M. Howel, John C. Yuille, & Delroy L. Paulhus, Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior from Corresponding Fantasies: The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption, 36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE & BEHAVIOR 198 (2008); Tori DeAngelis, Web Pornography’s Effect on Children, 38 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 50 (2007); Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg, Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects, 56 SEX ROLES 381–395 (2007); Silvio Bonino, Silvia Ciairanoa, Emanuela Rabagliettia, Elana Cattelino, Use of Pornography and Self-Reported Engagement in Sexual Violence Among Adolescents, 3 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 265 (2006).

[x] John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi & R. Sean Bannon, Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault, 18 SEXUAL ADDICTION & COMPULSIVITY: THE JOURNAL OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION 212–231 (2011); Neil Malamuth, Pornography’s Impact on Male Adolescents, 4 ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 563 (2010); Gert Martin Hald, Neil M. Malamuth & Carlin Yuen, Pornography and Attitudes Supporting Violence Against Women: Revisiting the Relationship in Non-experimental Studies 36 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 14–20 (2009); Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY 15–24 (2009); Drew A. Kingston, Paul Fedoroff, Philip Firestone, Susan Curry, John M. Bradford, Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression: The Impact of Frequency and Type of Pornography Use on Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders 34 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 341 (2008); Janet Hinson Shope, When Words Are Not Enough: The Search for the Effect of Pornography on Abused Women VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 56 (2004); Josetta L. Carr & Karen M. VanDeusen, Risk Factors for Male Sexual Aggression on College Campuses 15 JOURNAL OF FAMILY VIOLENCE 279 (2000).

[xi] APA Report, THE SEXUALIZATION OF GIRLS, (2010); Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg, Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects, 56 SEX ROLES 381–395 (2007); Elizabeth Oddone Paolucci, Mark Genuis & Claudio Violato, A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Effects of Pornography, NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR FAMILY RESEARCH AND EDUCATION (Calgary, Alberta, University of Calgary, 2000); Doug McKenzie-Mohr and Mark P. Zanna, Treating Women as Sexual Objects: Look to the (Gender Schematic) Male Who Has Viewed Pornography, 16 PERSONALITY & SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN 296–308 (1990).

[xii] Ana Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun & Rachel Liberman, Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: Content Analysis Update, 16 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 1065–1085 (2010).

[xiii] Cordelia Anderson, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Why Pornography is a Public Health Issue (July 14, 2015); Robert Peters, Laura Lederer & Shane Kelly, The Slave and the Porn Star: Sexual Trafficking and Pornography, THE PROTECTION PROJECT JOURNAL OF HUMAN RIGHTS & CIVIL SOCIETY, Fall 2012; Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarett, Peter Qualliotine & Michelle Decker, Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting: Comparing Sex Buyers with Men who Don’t Buy Sex: ”You can have a good time with the servitude” vs. “You’re supporting a system of degradation” (July 15, 2011); John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi & R. Sean Bannon, Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault, 18 SEXUAL ADDICTION & COMPULSIVITY: THE JOURNAL OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION 212–231 (2011); Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 15-24 (2009); Drew A. Kingston, Paul Fedoroff, Philip Firestone, Susan Curry, John M. Bradford, Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression: The Impact of Frequency and Type of Pornography Use on Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders 34 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 341 (2008); Dennis Howitt & Kerry Sheldon, The Role of Cognitive Distortions in Paedophilic Offending: Internet and Contact Offenders Compared 13 PSYCHOLOGY, CRIME & LAW 467 (2007); Catherine Mackinnon, Talk given at Pornography: Driving the Demand in International Sex Trafficking Conference: Pornography as Trafficking (May 14, 2005); Evelina Giobbe, Mary Harrigan & Jayme Ryan, A FACILITATOR’S GUIDE TO PROSTITUTION: A MATTER OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN (Denise Gamache, WHISPER, Inc. 1990);

[xiv] Simon Kuhn & Jurgen Gallinat, Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated With Pornography Consumption: The Brain on Porn 71 JAMA PSYCHIATRY 827 (2014); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Kyle Pitchers, Vincent Vialou, Eric Nestler, Steven Laviolette, Michael Lehman, & Lique Coolen, Natural and Drug Rewards Act on Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms with DeltaFosB as a Key Mediator33 THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 3434 (2013); Donald L. Hilton, Pornography Addiction – A Supranormal Stimulus Considered in the Context of Neuroplasticity 3 SOCIOEFFECTIVE NEUROSCIENCE & PSYCHOLOGY 20767 (2013).

[xv] Thomas Edward Kaspera, Mary Beth Shorta & Alex Clinton Milam, Narcissism and Internet Pornography Use 41 JOURNAL OF SEX & MARITAL THERAPY 481 (2015); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Thomas M. Mick & Eric Hollander, Impulsive-Compulsive Sexual Behavior, 11 CNS SPECTRUMS 944 (2006).

[xvi] Mary Anne Layden, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Sexual Obesity: Research on the Public Health Crisis of Pornography (July 14, 2015); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014.

[xvii] Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarett, Peter Qualliotine & Michelle Decker, Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting: Comparing Sex Buyers with Men who Don’t Buy Sex: ”You can have a good time with the servitude” vs. “You’re supporting a system of degradation” (July 15, 2011); Kevin M. Williams, Barry S. Cooper, Teresa M. Howel, John C. Yuille, & Delroy L. Paulhus, Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior from Corresponding Fantasies: The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption, 36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE & BEHAVIOR 198 (2008).

[xviii] Thomas Edward Kaspera, Mary Beth Shorta & Alex Clinton Milam, Narcissism and Internet Pornography Use 41 JOURNAL OF SEX & MARITAL THERAPY 481 (2015); Malcolm & Naufal, 2014; Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnson & Matt Ezzell, Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, December, 2014; Paul Wright, Robert Tokunaga & Soyoung Bae, More than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes among Married U.S. Adults 3 PSYCHOLOGY OF POPULAR MEDIA & CULTURE 97 (2014); Amanda Maddox, Galena Rhoades & Howard Markman, Viewing Sexually-Explicit Materials Alone or Together: Associations with Relationship Quality 40 ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 441 (2009); PAMELA PAUL, PORNIFIED: HOW PORNOGRAPHY IS DAMAGING OUR LIVES, OUR RELATIONSHIPS, AND OUR FAMILIES (New York Times Books, 2005); Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman & Roger Kern, Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography 85 SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 75 (2004).

[xix] Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnson & Matt Ezzell, Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, December, 2014; Kevin M. Williams, Barry S. Cooper, Teresa M. Howel, John C. Yuille, & Delroy L. Paulhus, Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior from Corresponding Fantasies: The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption, 36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE & BEHAVIOR 198 (2008); Kelly Cue Davis, Jeanette Noris, William George, Joel Martell & Julia Heiman, Men’s Likelihood of Sexual Aggression: The Influence of Alcohol, Sexual Arousal, and Violent Pornography, 2006; Malamuth, Centini, Repeated Exposure to Violent and Nonviolent Pornography: Likelihood of Raping Ratings and Laboratory Aggression Against Women, 2006; Mick & Hollander, Impulsive-Compulsive Sexual Behavior 32 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 581 (2006); Venessa Vega & Neil M. Malamuth, Predicting Sexual Aggression: The Role of Pornography in the Context of General and Specific Risk Factors, 33 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 104 (2006); Janet Hinson Shope, When Words Are Not Enough: The Search for the Effect of Pornography on Abused Women 10 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 56 (2004); Raquel Bergen & Kathleen Bogle, Exploring the Connection between Pornography and Sexual Violence 15 VIOLENCE AND VICTIMS  227 (2000); Azy Barak, William Fisher, Sandra Belfry & Darrel Lashambe, Sex, Guys, and Cyberspace: Effects of Internet Pornography and Individual Differences on Men’s Attitudes toward Women 11 JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY & HUMAN SEXUALITY 63 (1999).

[xx] Matthias Brand, Jan Snagowski, Christian Laier, & Stefan Maderwald, Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction, 129 NEUROIMAGE 224 (2016); Paula Banca, Laurel S. Morris, Simon Mitchell, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza, Valerie Voon, Novelty, conditioning and attentional bias to sexual rewards, 72 JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH 91 (2016); Shane W. Kraus, Valerie Voon, & Todd Love, Christian Laier, Matthias Brand, Linda Hatch, & Marc N. Potenza, Should Compulsive Sexual Behavior be Considered an Addiction? ADDICTION (2016); Mateusz K. Gola, Malgorzata Wordecha, Guillaume Sescousse, Bartosz Kossowski, and Artur Marchewka, Increased sensitivity to erotic reward cues in subjects with compulsive sexual behaviors, 4 JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL ADDICTIONS (2015); Chatzittofis A, Arver S, Öberg K, Hallberg J, Nordström P, Jokinen J., HPA axis dysregulation in men with hypersexual disorder, PSYCHONEUROENDOCRINOLOGY 61:53 (2015); Ji-Woo Seok and Jin-Hun Sohn, Neural Substrates of Sexual Desire in Individuals with Problematic Hypersexual Behavior, FRONTIERS IN BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE (2015); Raju Hajela, Neuroscience of Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update, 5(3) BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES 388 (2015); Daisy J. Mechelmans,1 Michael Irvine,1 Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Simon Mitchell, Tom B. Mole, Tatyana R. Lapa, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza, and Valerie Voon, Enhanced Attentional Bias towards Sexually Explicit Cues in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours, PLOS ONE (2014); Todd Love, Christian Laier, Matthias Brand, Linda Hatch, and Raju Hajela, Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated With Pornography Consumption, 71 JAMA PSYCHIATRY 7 (2014); Donald L. Hilton, Pornography Addiction – A Supranormal Stimulus Considered in the Context of Neuroplasticity 3 SOCIOEFFECTIVE NEUROSCIENCE & PSYCHOLOGY 20767 (2013); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Kyle Pitchers, Vincent Vialou, Eric Nestler, Steven Laviolette, Michael Lehman, & Lique Coolen, Natural and Drug Rewards Act on Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms with FosB as a Key Mediator33 THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 3434 (2013); Donald L. Hilton & Clark Watts, Pornography Addiction; A Neuroscience Perspective 2 SURGICAL NEUROLOGY INTERNATIONAL 2:19 2011; NORMAN DOIGE, Chapter 4: Acquiring Tastes and Loves: What Neuroplasticity Teaches About Sexual Attraction and Love, in THE BRAIN THAT CHANGES ITSELF (December 18, 2007).

[xxi] Id.

[xxii] Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarett, Peter Qualliotine & Michelle Decker, Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting: Comparing Sex Buyers with Men who Don’t Buy Sex: ”You can have a good time with the servitude” vs. “You’re supporting a system of degradation” (July 15, 2011); Ana Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun & Rachel Liberman, Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: Content Analysis Update, 16 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 1065–1085 (2010).

[xxiii] Michael Malcolm & George Naufal, Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? INSTITUTE OF THE STUDY OF LABOR (November 2014).

[xxiv] PAMELA PAUL, PORNIFIED: HOW PORNOGRAPHY IS DAMAGING OUR LIVES, OUR RELATIONSHIPS, AND OUR FAMILIES (New York Times Books, 2005); Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman & Roger Kern, Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography 85 SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 75 (2004).

[xxv] Amanda Maddox, Galena Rhoades & Howard Markman, Viewing Sexually-Explicit Materials Alone or Together: Associations with Relationship Quality 40 ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 441 (2009); Paul Wright, Robert Tokunaga & Soyoung Bae, More than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes among Married U.S. Adults 3 PSYCHOLOGY OF POPULAR MEDIA & CULTURE 97 (2014).

[xxvi] Patrick Trueman, Today's Porn: Not A Constitutional Right; Not A Human Right Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence Vol. 2, Issue 3 Freedom from Exploitation, Article 7 (July 2017), http://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1078&context=dignity.

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